ABRASION RESISTANT Sheet and plate that, with chemical properties, make it more resistant to scratching and marring (typically known as “AR” plate). AIRCRAFT QUALITY Material suitable for making highly stressed parts as used in aircraft manufacturing. AISI The abbreviation for the American Iron and Steel Institute. ALLOY STEEL Steel which contains significant quantities of alloying elements (nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, silicone and copper) added to reduce property changes caused during heat treating. AMERICAN STANDARD BEAM Doubly symmetric beam shapes whose inside flange typically has a 16-2/3% slope. Also called “S” beam. ANNEALING Process in which hot or cold rolled steel is heated and cooled to soften or change the microstructure. API The abbreviation for the American Petroleum Institute. ASME The abbreviation for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ASTM The abbreviation for the American Society for Testing and Materials. BAR-SIZED Steel shape in which each profile dimension is less than 3 inches. BARE In pipe, the surface is considered “bare” when it does not have the protective lacquer coating. In Tubing, the “bare” material is mill finish (not painted or pickled). Material will typically be dull in finish and may have an oil coating. BEAM A structural member whose primary function is to carry loads transverse to its longitudinal axis (or web). BRINELL HARDNESS Scale which denotes the impact strength of a particular sample of steel. CAMBER The greatest deviation of a side or edge from a straight line. CARBIDE A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. CARBON STEEL Steel containing up to 1% of carbon and only residual quantities of other elements. CHARPY V-NOTCH Test used to measure the impact strength of steel. CASTING Process in which a solid metal product is formed by pouring molten material into a mold and allowing it to cool. COLD-FORMED Steel in which the last process in forming (or finishing) is achieved without heat. The result is a clean, uniform surface and, in some products, increased strength and wear resistance. This includes cold-drawn, cold-rolled and cold-finished products. COMMERCIAL QUALITY Steel sheet commonly used in simple bending applications. Typically, the exact chemical composition varies (also known as CQ). DEFLECTION Deviation, under load, of a structural member from its normal position. DRAWING A process in which a structural shape is forced through a die or dies. ELASTIC LIMIT The maximum stress which a material is capable of withstanding without any measurable permanent deformation. ELECTRIC RESISTANCE WELDING Process in forming structural tubing whereas an electric current is passed through the material to weld together, without adding material. ELECTROPLATING Process in which a metal is bonded to another metal by electric current. ELONGATION In tensile testing, the measure of the increase in gauge length after the specimen is fractured. It is expressed as a percentage of original gauge length and indicates ductility. EXTRUSION Shaping of metal into a continuous form by forcing it through a die or dies. FATIGUE The tendency for a metal to break under conditions of repeated stressing, considerably below the ultimate tensile strength. FINISH In metals, it refers to the type of surface condition or edge that material has. FLANGE The portion of a structural shape that is at a right angle to the web. FORGING A metal product which has been formed by hammering or pressing. GALVANIZING Process in which a coating of zinc is applied to steel. The result is a greater resistance to oxidation (rust). GALVANNEALED Sheet which has been coated with zinc and heated to achieve a corrosion-resistant finish, better suited for painting. HARDNESS The ability of material to resist penetration. HEAT NUMBER Mill-assigned number which identifies the batch of material for future identification. Heat number can be found on MTR. HEAT TREATMENT A process in which metal is heated in order to change properties or metallurgical structure. HIGH STRENGTH - LOW ALLOY A specific group of steels with chemical compositions especially developed to impart higher mechanical properties and/or improve atmospheric corrosion resistance (commonly known as HSLA). HOT-ROLLED Steel in which the last process in forming (or finishing) is achieved at elevated temperatures. Typically, the result is a slightly imperfect, porous surface. IMPACT TEST A standard test which measures resistance to fracture (absorbtion of energy) at a specified temperature (see Charpy V-notch). INDUCED CAMBER A curve or bend, purposely induced into a beam, to offset loads that will occur in use. JUNIOR BEAM Type of Standard beam, usually having lighter weight than its closest Standard beam size. KSI Abbreviation of stress per square inch (PSI). K euals 1,000 PSI. (25 KSI = 25,000 PSI). LEVELING The flatteneing of steel plates and sheets. MACHINING The cutting away of a metal product by means of power-driven machinery. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Properties of a material that reveal its behavior when force is applied, which indicates its suitability for mechanical application. MERCHANT BARS Bars produced for a wide range of uses involving mild cold-bending, hot-forming, punching and welding. MILL EDGE Rounded edge produced in hot-rolling of flat steel. MILL FINISH A surface finish, produced on sheet and plate, that is typical of the ground finish on the rolls used in manufacturing the material. MTR Report which provides the chemical properties of a particular batch or product (Mill Test Report). NOMINAL Approximate value of the pricipal dimension(s) of a product. NORMALIZED Steel that has been heated and cooled to specific temperatures in order to refine the grain structure and improve toughness. P&O Steel material that has been Pickled (surface oxides removed) and Oiled (coated with oil to retard rusting). PRESSURE VESSEL QUALITY Sheet and plate suitable for pressure vessel applications (abbreviated PVQ). QUENCHING The rapid cooling of steel to induce specific microstructure and properties (hardness). ROCKWELL HARDNESS A method of measuring the hardness of material in which an object is pressed into the material’s surface. SSCI Abbreviation for Steel Service Center Institute. SCALE Iron oxide which forms on the surface of hot steel (usually called mill scale). SPLIT TEE T-shapes cut from Beam shapes (W, S & M). STRESS RELIEVING Heat treating process in which material is heated to relieve stress created in manufature or machining. SWEEP The greatest deviation from the plane of the web in a structural shape, as measured along the concave side, with a straight edge or line. TENSILE STRENGTH Strength of material at point of breaking or fracture. TOLERANCE Specified limits of deviation from a standard measurement. UM FLAT Universal Mill Flat (or plate) are bars whose thickness measures greater than .23” and has a width greater than 8”. WEB The part of a structural shape which joins and separates flanges. WIDE FLANGE Structural steel beam shape with relatively wide flanges, whose surfaces are parallel to one another. YIELD POINT The point in which material is stressed beyond its elastic limit.

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